Early studies:

London Transportation: The Cohort Studies (1947-1972)

The annual rate of CHD for drivers was 2.7 per 1,000, and 1.9 per 1,000 for conductors.More important, the disease is not so severe in physically active workers, tending to present first in them as angina pectoris and other relatively benign forms, and to have a smaller early case-fatality and a lower early mortality-rate.”

http://www.epi.umn.edu/cvdepi/study-synopsis/london-transport-workers-study/

Possible confounders:

sleep and stress: http://archives.sethroberts.net/blog/2009/09/28/exercise-and-its-confounds-the-london-bus-study/

Weaknesses of the study were based on the characteristics of the cohort at entry, thus early selection into active occupations, and selection out with age and illness. Employees of the London Transport Executive also could retire early if they developed CHD, making follow-up after an initial coronary incident difficult

Paffenbarger: Harvard Alumni Study

In the 1993 survey, 2,135 subjects had experienced coronary heart disease (87.1% response rate). In this analysis, the researchers found increased physical activity level was associated with lower coronary heart disease risk when considered singly (RR for those who burned more than 8400 kilojoules per week= 0.73, 95% CI= 0.63-0.84, p <.001). [2] When considered along with age, BMI, alcohol intake, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status and early parental death, higher levels of physical activity were also apparently protective (RR for those who burn more than 4200 kilojoules per week= 0.81, 95% CI: 0.71-0.92, p= .003) [2].

http://www.epi.umn.edu/cvdepi/study-synopsis/harvard-alumni-study/

 All cause mortality and dose response of exercise:

http://www.onlinejacc.org/content/accj/64/5/472.full.pdf

 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/11912487_Lee_I-M_Skerrett_PJ_Physical_activity_and_all-cause_mortality_what_is_the_dose-response_relation_Med_Sci_Sports_Exerc_33_S459-S471

With respect to maximal aerobic capacity:

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/1108396

 

 The Lancet:
Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

 

It's Not Just Salt, Sugar, Fat: Study Finds Ultra-Processed Foods Drive Weight Gain

https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2019/05/16/723693839/its-not-just-salt-sugar-fat-study-finds-ultra-processed-foods-drive-weight-gain?sc=ipad&f=1001&fbclid=IwAR3VeaHbq2ETj3zhubdsVRJbiwndW6cewdtE9Rp73yf0DImthBMFtPGbCo8

 

Creating and maintaining an energy deficit reduces cancer risk:

http://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21693419-active-life-protects-against-cancer-researchers-now-understand-why-run-day

 

Human genetic change since the Paleolith:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/02/17/what-actual-caveman-dna-says-about-the-paleo-movement/

 

Running 100 miles:

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jodi-weiss/what-i-have-learned-from-_5_b_8795088.html

 

Calories burned running and walking:

http://fellrnr.com/wiki/Calories_burned_running_and_walking

 

10 Documentaries on Food:

https://mic.com/articles/89183/11-powerful-netflix-documentaries-that-will-change-how-you-think-about-food#.pQV8cpLGM

 

Fitness in America:

http://cdn.missionreadiness.org/NATEE1109.pdf

 

No upper limits:

https://www.outsideonline.com/2358586/dont-worry-about-exercising-too-much

Obesity
https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html

 

The 2 things that have helped my plantar fasciitis, both backed by research:

tissue specific stretching:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16882901
http://nesportandspine.com/sites/default/files/plantarfasciitisteachingsheet.pdf?fbclid=IwAR2egcYaV9MQgoYW64UBiRBGwlUnNEzocUA93w19tluq_B7SYDN_ea3Ymno

high load heel raises:
https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/09/15/heel-pain-treatment/?fbclid=IwAR2bek7-hZddcsvTLiA0q4XClJfFGjAQgUJYuJ-mGHbIive0-0w5MyEcBXg
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/sms.12313