Early studies:

London Transportation: The Cohort Studies (1947-1972)

The annual rate of CHD for drivers was 2.7 per 1,000, and 1.9 per 1,000 for conductors.More important, the disease is not so severe in physically active workers, tending to present first in them as angina pectoris and other relatively benign forms, and to have a smaller early case-fatality and a lower early mortality-rate.”

http://www.epi.umn.edu/cvdepi/study-synopsis/london-transport-workers-study/

Possible confounders:

sleep and stress: http://archives.sethroberts.net/blog/2009/09/28/exercise-and-its-confounds-the-london-bus-study/

Weaknesses of the study were based on the characteristics of the cohort at entry, thus early selection into active occupations, and selection out with age and illness. Employees of the London Transport Executive also could retire early if they developed CHD, making follow-up after an initial coronary incident difficult

Paffenbarger: Harvard Alumni Study

In the 1993 survey, 2,135 subjects had experienced coronary heart disease (87.1% response rate). In this analysis, the researchers found increased physical activity level was associated with lower coronary heart disease risk when considered singly (RR for those who burned more than 8400 kilojoules per week= 0.73, 95% CI= 0.63-0.84, p <.001). [2] When considered along with age, BMI, alcohol intake, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status and early parental death, higher levels of physical activity were also apparently protective (RR for those who burn more than 4200 kilojoules per week= 0.81, 95% CI: 0.71-0.92, p= .003) [2].

http://www.epi.umn.edu/cvdepi/study-synopsis/harvard-alumni-study/

 All cause mortality and dose response of exercise:

http://www.onlinejacc.org/content/accj/64/5/472.full.pdf

 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/11912487_Lee_I-M_Skerrett_PJ_Physical_activity_and_all-cause_mortality_what_is_the_dose-response_relation_Med_Sci_Sports_Exerc_33_S459-S471

With respect to maximal aerobic capacity:

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/1108396

 

 Large Cross-Sectional Studies

The Lancet:
Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

 

The Evil Three

Sugar

http://healthland.time.com/2012/02/02/should-sugar-be-regulated-like-alcohol-and-tobacco/
https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/10/well/eat/sugary-drinks-linked-to-cancer-onset.html
https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/22/well/eat/the-downside-of-having-a-sweet-tooth.html?rref=collection%2Fsectioncollection%2Fwell
https://www.menshealth.com/nutrition/a28277408/giving-up-all-sugar/
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190905090929.htm
https://www.ama-assn.org/press-center/press-release/ama-adopts-policy-reduce-consumption-sugar-sweetened-beverages

Sugar Addiction
https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/52/14/910
https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/14/health/big-tobacco-kool-aid-sugar-obesity.html

Fat

High-fat diets affect your brain, not just your physical appearance
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190909121234.htm

Salt

 

Nutrition

Processed Foods

It's Not Just Salt, Sugar, Fat: Study Finds Ultra-Processed Foods Drive Weight Gain
https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2019/05/16/723693839/its-not-just-salt-sugar-fat-study-finds-ultra-processed-foods-drive-weight-gain
https://www.ama-assn.org/delivering-care/public-health/limit-junk-food-ads-contribute-childhood-obesity

Crazy Diets

Intermittent Fasting
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/05/180520090903.htm

Vegan
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190916185819.htm

 Addiction

https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/139/3/623/4670401

 

Exercise As Medicine

Mortality and Morbidity

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/245025.php
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/244388.php

H.I.I.T.

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/8730084/Dont-just-plod-if-you-want-a-longer-life-say-heart-experts.html

Creating and maintaining an energy deficit reduces cancer risk:
http://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21693419-active-life-protects-against-cancer-researchers-now-understand-why-run-day

Obesity
https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html

The effects of exercise on fat storage:
https://www.medpagetoday.org/meetingcoverage/ada/40038?vpass=1

Elevated Temperature
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/05/180521095606.htm

Societal Impact

http://cdn.missionreadiness.org/NATEE1109.pdf

 Gain Muscle, Loose Fat

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/103/3/738
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/01/160127132741.htm
https://www.google.com/search?q=gain+muscle+lose+fat+diet&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8

https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/wellness/the-fat-burning-heart-rate-zone-is-a-myth-how-exercise-and-weight-loss-really-work/2018/12/17/548ea93a-fc8e-11e8-83c0-b06139e540e5_story.html?noredirect=on

Abdominal Fat

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/11/well/live/belly-fat-health-visceral-fat-waist-cancer.html?rref=collection%2Fsectioncollection%2Fhealth&action=click&contentCollection=health®ion=rank&module=package&version=highlights&contentPlacement=6&pgtype=sectionfront

Obesity

You can grow fat cells at any age and the fuller they become the better the body gets at making them:
http://www.scq.ubc.ca/america-and-adipocytes-why-liposuction-is-not-the-answer/

But once they're made, they almost never go away....
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v453/n7196/full/nature06902.html

Evolution

Human genetic change since the Paleolith:
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/02/17/what-actual-caveman-dna-says-about-the-paleo-movement/

We did not evolve with shoes on our feet:
https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/17/well/move/born-to-walk-barefoot.html?rref=collection%2Fsectioncollection%2Fwell

 The evolutionary reason why we are lazy:
https://slate.com/technology/2013/06/daniel-lieberman-long-distance-running-we-evolved-endurance-and-dislike-of-running.html

Ultrarunning:

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jodi-weiss/what-i-have-learned-from-_5_b_8795088.html

No upper limits:
https://www.outsideonline.com/2358586/dont-worry-about-exercising-too-much

 

Documentaries

https://mic.com/articles/89183/11-powerful-netflix-documentaries-that-will-change-how-you-think-about-food#.pQV8cpLGM

 

General Running Topics

The 2 things that have helped my plantar fasciitis, both backed by research:

tissue specific stretching:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16882901
http://nesportandspine.com/sites/default/files/plantarfasciitisteachingsheet.pdf?fbclid=IwAR2egcYaV9MQgoYW64UBiRBGwlUnNEzocUA93w19tluq_B7SYDN_ea3Ymno

high load heel raises:
https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/09/15/heel-pain-treatment/?fbclid=IwAR2bek7-hZddcsvTLiA0q4XClJfFGjAQgUJYuJ-mGHbIive0-0w5MyEcBXg
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/sms.12313

Calories burned running and walking:
http://fellrnr.com/wiki/Calories_burned_running_and_walking

https://static.nytimes.com/email-content/RU_8032.html?nlid=56151896

Getting Old

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190909193211.htm

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190917193639.htm

Stress

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190909134912.htm