Early studies:

London Transportation: The Cohort Studies (1947-1972)

The annual rate of CHD for drivers was 2.7 per 1,000, and 1.9 per 1,000 for conductors.More important, the disease is not so severe in physically active workers, tending to present first in them as angina pectoris and other relatively benign forms, and to have a smaller early case-fatality and a lower early mortality-rate.”


Possible confounders:

sleep and stress: http://archives.sethroberts.net/blog/2009/09/28/exercise-and-its-confounds-the-london-bus-study/

Weaknesses of the study were based on the characteristics of the cohort at entry, thus early selection into active occupations, and selection out with age and illness. Employees of the London Transport Executive also could retire early if they developed CHD, making follow-up after an initial coronary incident difficult

Paffenbarger: Harvard Alumni Study

In the 1993 survey, 2,135 subjects had experienced coronary heart disease (87.1% response rate). In this analysis, the researchers found increased physical activity level was associated with lower coronary heart disease risk when considered singly (RR for those who burned more than 8400 kilojoules per week= 0.73, 95% CI= 0.63-0.84, p <.001). [2] When considered along with age, BMI, alcohol intake, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status and early parental death, higher levels of physical activity were also apparently protective (RR for those who burn more than 4200 kilojoules per week= 0.81, 95% CI: 0.71-0.92, p= .003) [2].


 All cause mortality and dose response of exercise:



With respect to maximal aerobic capacity:





Creating and maintaining an energy deficit reduces cancer risk:



Human genetic change since the Paleolith:



Running 100 miles:



Calories burned running and walking:



10 Documentaries on Food:



Fitness in America: